Presentation on the topic "biology - the science of life". Biology - the science of the living world Presentation of the science of living organisms

Presentation on the topic "biology - the science of life". Biology - the science of the living world Presentation of the science of living organisms

This presentation is a supporting material for an introductory lesson onbiology.

Biology(from Greek bios - life, logos- the science) - the scienceaboutlife, about general patterns of existence and development of living beings.The subject of its study are living organisms, their structure, functions, development, relationship with the environment and origin.

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Lesson topic:
“Biology is the science of the living world. ".
The purpose of the lesson:
1. Get acquainted with the tasks and content of the course "Fundamentals of General Biology".2. Realize the understanding of biological research for the individual and society.3. To study the basic properties of living organisms.
Lesson plan:
Biology is like a science. The history of the development of biology. Biology is a set of natural sciences. General properties of living organisms.
Biology as a science.
Biology is the science of living organisms and all manifestations of life. General biology is the science of the general laws and patterns inherent in living nature. The name comes from two Greek words: bios - “life”; logos - "teaching".
History of science
1779 - for the first time the term "biology" was used by the German professor of anatomy T. Ruz. 1802 - J.B. Lamarck proposed the term "biology" to refer to the science of living organisms. Knowledge began to be accumulated and passed on to generations already in ancient times.
History of science
1 in. n. e. - the first biological encyclopedia "Natural History" by Pliny the Elder. Until the 19th century the field of knowledge about wildlife was called natural history - the description and systematization of knowledge about wildlife.
Biology methods:
1.Comparative.2.Experimental.3.Historical.4.Analytical
Open general laws and patterns.
Biology is the totality of the natural sciences:
BotanyZoologyEmbryologyEcologyMicrobiologySystematicsImmunologyPaleontologyMorphologyHistology
CytologyAnatomyEthologyArachnologyOrnithologyIchthyologyEntomologyPhysiologyVirologyBiotechnology
Diversity of life forms
Diversity of life forms
General properties of living organisms:
Unity of elemental chemical and bio chemical composition. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acids, being in the cell, provide manifestations of life.
General properties of living organisms
The cell is the structural and functional unit of living organisms - the cellular structure.
General properties of living organisms
The exchange of matter and energy ensures the constant connection of the organism with the environment and the maintenance of its life.
General properties of living organisms
Self-reproduction is the most important property of the living, supporting the continuity of the existence of life. "All living things come from living things."
General properties of living organisms
Irritability is a common property of living things that allows organisms to navigate in the environment and survive in changing conditions.
General properties of living organisms
Fitness is a feature of the external and internal structure, behavior and rhythm of life depending on the environment.
General properties of living organisms
The ability to grow and develop. Growth - an increase in size and mass. Development - irreversible qualitative changes over time.
General properties of living organisms
evolutionary development. All organisms exist not only in space, but also in time. All diversity on Earth is the result of evolution.

BIOLOGY IS THE SCIENCE OF LIFE

Umaralieva M. T.

Biology teacher at the academic lyceum at Tashfarmi


  • Biology (Greekβιολογία; from other Greekβίος - life + λόγος - doctrine , the science) - a system of sciences, the objects of study of which are living beings and their interaction with environment .

  • Biology studies all aspects life in particular the structure, functioning, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms Earth. Classifies and describes living beings, their origin species, interaction with each other and with environment .

  • The term "biology" was introduced independently by several authors:
  • Friedrich Burdakh in 1800 ,
  • Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus in 1802 year
  • Jean Baptiste Lamarck .

  • Modern biology is based on five fundamental principles:
  • cellular theory ,
  • evolution ,
  • genetics ,
  • homeostasis
  • energy .
  • Biology is now a standard subject in secondary and higher educational institutions all over the world. More than a million articles and books on biology are published annually, medicine and biomedicine

life forms

  • non-cellular life forms
  • viruses
  • bacteriophages
  • Cellular Life Forms - Organic World

Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

Bacteria - fungi

Blue - - plants

green - animals

algae (cyanobacteria)


The organic world can be divided into four kingdoms

bacteria

mushrooms

plants

animals


What unites bacteria, fungi, plants, animals into one single organic world?

What do they have in common?




SPECIFIC FEATURE OF LIVING ORGANISMS

1. Cell structure

8. Movement

9. Irritability

10.Growth

12.Release

13.Regeneration

7.Highlight

14. Self-regulation


  • Generality of chemical composition . The main features of the chemical composition of a cell and a multicellular organism are carbon compounds - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids. In inanimate nature, these compounds are not formed.
  • The commonality of the chemical composition of living systems and inanimate nature speaks of the unity and connection of living and inanimate matter. The whole world is a system based on individual atoms. Atoms interact with each other to form molecules. Molecules in inanimate systems form rock crystals, stars, planets, and the universe. From the molecules that make up organisms, living systems are formed - cells, tissues, organisms.

1. Cell structure

Cell- a structural and functional elementary unit of the structure and vital activity of all organisms (except for viruses, which are often referred to as non-cellular life forms), which has its own metabolism, is capable of independent existence, self-reproduction, or is a unicellular organism.


  • Metabolism- all living organisms are capable of exchanging substances with the environment, i.e. absorbs from it the substances necessary for nutrition, and excrete waste products.

  • - the property of parents to pass on their signs and features of development to the next generations. Due to this, all individuals within a species are similar to each other.

  • Such continuity of hereditary properties is ensured by the transfer of genetic information that is stored in DNA molecules.

  • - the ability of organisms to show new signs and properties. Due to variability, all individuals within a species are different from each other.

  • - the process of absorption of food by living organisms to maintain the normal course of physiological processes vital activity, in particular, to replenish the stock energy and implementation of processes growth and development .

carbon source

Energy source

inorganic carbon

light energy

organic carbon

Autotrophs (self-feeding)

chemical energy

Phototrophs

Heterotrophs

green plants

Chemotrophs

photosynthetic bacteria

Chemotrophic bacteria N, H, S, Fe (do not need prepared food)

Saprophytes


  • Autotrophs(autotrophic organisms) - organisms that use carbon dioxide as a source of carbon (plants and some bacteria). In other words, these are organisms capable of creating organic substances from inorganic substances - carbon dioxide, water, mineral salts.

  • Depending on the source of energy, autotrophs are divided into phototrophs and chemotrophs.
  • Phototrophs organisms that use light energy for biosynthesis (plants, cyanobacteria).
  • Chemotrophs organisms that use the energy of chemical reactions of oxidation of inorganic compounds for biosynthesis (chemotrophic bacteria: hydrogen bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, iron bacteria, sulfur bacteria, etc.).

  • Heterotrophs(heterotrophic organisms) - organisms that use organic compounds as a source of carbon (animals, fungi and most bacteria). In other words, these are organisms that are not able to create organic substances from inorganic ones, but need ready-made organic substances.

  • Saprophytes organisms that feed on dead decaying food. Enzymes are isolated directly on the food product, which is digested or broken down and absorbed by the saprophyte.
  • For example: green euglena, fermentation bacteria, putrefaction bacteria, yeasts, moulds, cap mushrooms

  • - a process in which organic substances obtained as food are oxidized, broken down and energy is released, which is spent on the synthesis of ATP.
  • Aerobic respiration
  • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H2O + Q 38ADP + 38H 3 RO 4 → 38 ATP
  • Anaerobic respiration:
  • A) lactic acid fermentation:
  • C 6 H 12 O 6 → 2 lactic acids + Q 2ADP + 2H 3 RO 4 → 2ATP
  • B) alcoholic fermentation:
  • C 6 H 12 O 6 → ethyl alcohol + CO 2 + Q 2ADP + 2H 3 RO 4 → 2ATP

  • - the response of living organisms to the influence of environmental factors:
  • 1) The response of living organisms that do not have a nervous system is called: taxis, tropism, nastia.
  • Phototaxis- motor reactions freely moving lower plants and animals under the influence of light (green euglena, chlamydomonas)
  • Phototropism- motor reactions of the plant under the influence of light, the direction of which depends on the direction of the light.
  • photonasty-motor reactions of plants under the influence of light, the direction of which does not depend on the direction of exposure.
  • 2) The response of living organisms having a nervous system is called reflex .

  • (reproduction or self-reproduction) The property of organisms to reproduce their own kind.
  • Living organisms reproduce in two ways:
  • a) asexual reproduction
  • b) sexual reproduction.


Growth

  • Growth

quantitative increase while maintaining its own structure.


  • quality update.
  • Living organisms are:
  • a) personal development ontogenesis(Haeckel, 1866)
  • b) historical development- phylogenesis .

  • Regeneration– restoration of lost body parts (tissue, organ, cell) after damage
  • Self-regulation Every organism has a mechanism of self-regulation. This property is related to homeostasis.
  • homeostasis- ensuring the constancy of the external structure, internal environment, chemical composition and the course of physiological processes in response to continuously changing environmental conditions.

  • - a property of all living systems associated with a constant supply of energy from the outside and the removal of waste products. In other words, an organism is alive while it exchanges matter and energy with the environment.

  • - in the process of historical development and under the influence of natural selection, organisms acquire adaptations to environmental conditions (adaptation). Organisms that do not have the necessary adaptations die out.

  • The levels of organization of living systems reflect the subordination, hierarchy of the structural organization of life. Living standards differ from each other by the complexity of the organization of the system.
  • The standard of living is the form and way of its existence . For example, a virus exists as a DNA or RNA molecule enclosed in a protein shell. This is the form of existence of the virus. However, the properties of a living system, the virus shows only when it enters the cell of another organism. There he breeds. This is his way of being.

  • Molecular genetic level represented by individual biopolymers (DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other compounds);
  • Organoid - cellular - the level at which life exists in the form of a cell - the structural and functional unit of life. At this level, processes such as metabolism and energy, information exchange, reproduction, photosynthesis, transmission of nerve impulses, and many others are studied.
  • Organismic - this is the independent existence of a separate individual - a unicellular or multicellular organism.
  • population-species - the level, which is represented by a group of individuals of the same species - a population; It is in the population that elementary evolutionary processes take place - the accumulation, manifestation and selection of mutations.
  • Biogeocenotic - represented by ecosystems consisting of different populations and their habitats.
  • biospheric - a level representing the totality of all biogeocenoses. In the biosphere, the circulation of substances and the transformation of energy with the participation of organisms take place. The products of vital activity of organisms participate in the process of evolution of the Earth.


  • 1. The main sign of the living -
  • 1) movement;
  • 2) weight gain;
  • 3) growth;
  • 4) metabolism and energy;
  • 2. What is the unit of structure and life of the organism?
  • 1) Fabric.
  • 2) Organ system.
  • 3) Organ.
  • 4) Cell.
  • 3. What signs are characteristic of all living organisms?
  • 1) Active movement.
  • 2) Respiration, nutrition, growth, reproduction.
  • 3) Absorption of mineral salts dissolved in water from the soil.
  • 4) The formation of organic substances from inorganic.

  • 4. The cellular structure of organisms indicates:
  • 1) about the similarity of animate and inanimate nature;
  • 2) about the unity of the organic world;
  • 3) about the connection of the organism with the environment;
  • 4) about the difference between plants and animals.
  • 5. All organisms are capable of
  • 1) breathing, nutrition, reproduction
  • 2) active movement in space
  • 3) the formation of organic substances from inorganic
  • 4) absorption from the soil of minerals dissolved in water
  • 6. Mushrooms are living organisms, as they
  • 1) feed, grow, multiply;
  • 2) change under the influence of the environment;
  • 3) have a variety of shapes and sizes;
  • 4) constitute one of the links of the ecosystem.

  • 7. Genetics is a science that studies patterns:
  • 1) heredity and variability of organisms
  • 2) the relationship of organisms and the environment
  • 3) the historical development of the organic world
  • 4) individual development of organisms 8. The structure and functions of cell organelles are studied by science:
  • 1) genetics 3) selection
  • 2) cytology 4) phenology 9. Living systems are considered open because they:
  • 1) built from the same chemical elements as non-living systems
  • 2) exchange substances, energy and information with the external environment
  • 3) have the ability to adapt
  • 4) able to reproduce
  • 10. Interspecies relations begin to manifest themselves at the ... level:
  • 1) biogeocenotic 3) organismic
  • 2) population-species 4) biospheric

  • Answers:
  • 1 – 4
  • 2 – 4
  • 3 – 2
  • 4 – 2
  • 5 – 1
  • 6 – 1
  • 7 – 1
  • 8 – 2
  • 9 – 2
  • 10 - 2


Compose a syncwine of the concept of "biology". Adjectives and verbs should reveal the concept, and the sentence should have a semantic character. An example of a syncwine: 1. Biology 2. Interesting, meaningful 3. Discovers, studies, experiments. 4. Helps to understand wildlife. 5. Science.


Biology is the science of the living world. Biology studies the diversity, structure and functions of living beings and natural communities, the distribution, origin and development of organisms, their relationship with each other and with inanimate nature. The study of nature began at the earliest stages of human development - it provided people with survival.


Biology is the science of the living world. People memorized information about animals and plants, passed on from generation to generation, later they began to compile lists of useful plants and animals, characterize their properties, methods of cultivation. In 1802, the French naturalist J.B. Lamarck introduced the term "biology" into science.


Biology is the science of the living world. Biology belongs to the fundamental sciences, since its conclusions are of fundamental theoretical and applied significance. Science is a sphere of human activity, spiritual production aimed at developing and systematizing objective knowledge about activity, one of the forms of social consciousness, a cultural phenomenon.


The difference between the natural sciences The main difference between the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) and the humanities (literary criticism, art criticism) is that in the natural sciences, an experiment is used to get answers to questions - the most important method.


Research methods in biology. 1. Observations (to understand existing properties); 2. Descriptive (collection and description of facts); 3. Comparative (comparison of organisms and their parts, finding similarities and differences) 4. Experimental (study under precisely established conditions, reproducible)


Research methods in biology. The modeling method allows you to foresee what is impossible to recreate in reality. A model is a form and means of cognition, any system that reflects the original, replaces it, and provides information about it. A hypothesis is a scientific assumption put forward to explain some phenomena.


Research methods in biology. A hypothesis supported by numerous and varied data from reproducible experiments is considered a theory. Facts are events or objects that repeat naturally or about which there is indisputable data.


Algorithm for conducting scientific research. 1. Statement of the problem, formulation of the topic, goals and objectives of the study. 2. Putting forward hypotheses. 3. Planning the course of the study, the choice of methodology. 4. Conducting the practical part of the study, registration of qualitative and quantitative results.


Biology is the science of the living world. Modern biology is a complex science, consisting of a number of independent scientific disciplines with their own objects of study. Botany - studies plants, Zoology - animals, Human biology - anatomical and physiological properties of humans, Microbiology - bacteria


Biology is the science of the living world. Depending on the area of ​​human activity in which biological knowledge is used, there are such disciplines as biotechnology - a set of industrial methods that allow the use of living organisms in the production of products valuable to humans (amino acids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins, antibiotics, hormones);

We will consider what biology does, what subsections it is divided into and what it studies, we will find out what its main task in the field of scientific knowledge is, we will get acquainted with the history of its occurrence and development in the study of the world around us.

The main task biology consists in interpreting all the phenomena of living nature, revealing for us, for some reason -vi-va-et-sya life, and approach, in such a way, to the in-no-ma-niya of life as udi-vi-tel-no-go fe-no-me -on, rise-nick-she-go on our planet.

The history of bio-logia is very ancient. Fak-ti-che-ski bio-logia became the first on-y-koy, to study some of our ancestors under-push-well-la nature itself . Knowledge of biology at the dawn of man was almost the main condition for survival (Fig. 2).

Rice. 2. Survival environment of our ancestors ()

People needed to know which races, animals or mushrooms are dangerous or poisonous, and which ones can be used for food ; how to heal, from what to make clothes, hunting, no one’s equipment and other tools, from which it is better to build get housing. This knowledge is people for-on-mi-on-whether and re-yes-va-li from co-le-tion to co-le-tion. Later, people began to create lists of forest races and animals, give them names, study their properties. Thanks-go-da-rya these know-ni-pits people learned to-ra-schi-vat dis-te-niya sa-mo-sto-I-tel-no, kul-ti-vi-ro -vat them, so agriculture appeared (Fig. 3), transforming the neck of a person-lo-ve-ka - so-bi-ra-te-la and hunting - not in the earth-le-del-tsa, which gave a powerful impetus to the development of a human-lo-ve-che-society in the form in which we we know this time.

Rice. 3. The formation of agriculture ()

The term “bio-logia” itself arose only at the very end of the 18th century, for the first time it was used by the German professor of anatomy Ruz. In 1802, the French on-to-ra-list Jean-Ba-tist La-Mark (Fig. 4) proposed to use this term to designate -tion of science, studying living orga-niz-we, which was logical.

Rice. 4. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck ()

In trans-re-vo-de from Greek, "bios" means "life", "logos" - "teaching".

Biology uses various research methods (Fig. 5), for example, a lot of bio-logi-che-study niya pro-go-dyat directly on the pri-ro-de - on-blu-de-tion, description, comparison, measurement, mo- no-ring. At the same time, a significant part of the research-before-va-niy tre-bu-et la-bo-ra-to-rii. In la-bo-ra-tor-ny conditions, bio-lo-gi become ex-pe-ri-men-you, implement-la-yut mo-de-li-ro-va- nie. Bio-logia is not alien and is-to-ri-che-sky methods of research-after-to-va-nia, because bio-logia studies living or -ha-down-we are in development, and the development can last for millions of years. Analysis, comparison - all these powerful methods of research-to-follow-up-to-va-tion are applied in biology.

Rice. 5. Natural, laboratory, historical methods and analysis ()

Thanks-go-da-rya to this bio-logia-to-ko-pi-la extensive data, pos-la-yu-deep to understand the manifestation of the of life and its for-no-dimensions, to establish the principles of chi-py of the class-si-fi-ka-tion of living beings, especially-ben-no-stey of their su- society-va-tion and interaction with the environment. Biology is a fun-da-men-tal science, its you-vo-dy are not only very important theo-re-ti-che-character, but also applied.

Life today is inconceivable without bio-logia. This science lies at the basis of many ot-races, without some-ry su-s-stvo-va-nie co-time-men-no-go-lo-ve-ka was it would be impossible: agriculture, me-di-qi-na, environmental protection (Fig. 6).

Rice. 6. Biology in various industries ()

Se-year-nya before the bio-lo-gi-she is a fan-ta-sti-che-for-da-chi, about someone in na-cha-le past century it was only possible to dream. Gene-ny in-zh-ne-riya - young science (Fig. 7), pos-in-la-yu-shchay you-in-dit or-ga-bottom-we with the need-we-mi che-lo-ve-ku properties-mi, is also a branch of bio-logia.

Rice. 7. Genetic engineering ()

A modern biologist is obligated to think not only about getting something new. He must be clearly mother-in-law, how to preserve the thread that already exists, and not to destroy the foundations of our own su-s-stvo-va-niya. It is precisely for this reason that so much attention is given to-la-et-sya this year in-pro-of eco-logia - the science of the environment, something-of-paradise is also a bio-lo-gi-che-dis-qi-pli-noy.

We will study with you general biology, which studies common to all or-ga-niz-mov for-ko-no-mer-no-sti, in this way it is important-her-shi-mi dis-qi-pl-na-mi , with someone-ry-mi, we have to-it-know-to-know-sya, become-chute biochemistry, cytology- cell science, genetics, bio-logia development, evo-lu-qi-on-noe teaching and ecology.

Bibliography

  1. Mamontov S.G., Zakharov V.B., Agafonova I.B., Sonin N.I. Biology. General patterns. - Bustard, 2009.
  2. Ponomareva I.N., Kornilova O.A., Chernova N.M. Fundamentals of General Biology. Grade 9: A textbook for students in grade 9 of educational institutions / Ed. prof. I.N. Ponomareva. - 2nd ed., revised. - M.: Ventana-Graf, 2005.
  3. Pasechnik V.V., Kamensky A.A., Kriksunov E.A. Biology. An Introduction to General Biology and Ecology: A 9th Grade Textbook, 3rd ed., stereotype. - M.: Bustard, 2002.
  1. ppt4web.ru ().
  2. Template-cms.ru ().
  3. Taketop.ru ().

Homework

  1. What is biology and what disciplines does it study?
  2. What is the main task of biology?
  3. What does general biology include?


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