Biology presentation on bacteria. Presentation "Bacteria"

Biology presentation on bacteria. Presentation "Bacteria"

KINGDOM OF PROKARYOTES
SUBKINGDOM OF BACTERIA

Bacteria are prokaryotes.
These are the simplest, smallest and
widespread organisms,
which exist on earth for more than 2 billion years, but at the same time constantly
developing. bacteria so
differ from other living organisms that they are isolated in a special kingdom. There are not many places in the world that are devoid of bacteria.
They live in water, soil, air,
inside and on the surface of animal bodies
and plants.

The structure of a bacterial cell

BACTERIA SIZES

Bacterial cells are very small.

GROUPS OF REAL BACTERIA

cocci (spherical) - single

diplococci (collected in twos)

streptococci (in the form of a chain)

staphylococci (in the form of a bunch of grapes)

sarcinas (in the form of dense packs)

bacilli (rod-shaped)

convoluted - vibrios (in the form of a comma)

spirilla (one or more
correct curls)

Bacteria are classified into two groups based on their mode of nutrition.

heterotrophs
(they are unable
synthesize
organic
substance,
and eat ready)

AUTOTROPHS
(able
synthesize
organic matter
from
inorganic)

Heterotrophs are divided into three groups

saprophytes
bacteria that
eat organic
dead substances
organisms
(lactic acid
bacteria,
decay bacteria)

SYMBIONTS
close cohabitation
bacteria with live
organisms
beneficial
each other
(nodule bacteria
on the roots of legumes)

Slide #10

Most bacteria can use almost any organic compound as an energy source, even substances used to destroy them (for example, penicillin, which kills many bacteria). This is due to the fact that bacteria can live both in the presence of oxygen in the environment and in its absence.

Slide #11

Bacteria can be divided into two groups based on their mode of nutrition.

Anaerobic
(decompose organic matter without the participation of oxygen)

Aerobic
(during breathing
use oxygen
for the oxidation of organic matter)

Slide #12

In relation to the temperature of development, bacteria are also very diverse: some develop in a wide range of temperature changes, others only at certain temperatures (low, high, or in a narrow temperature range).

Slide #13

REPRODUCTION OF BACTERIA

Under favorable conditions, bacterial cells multiply very quickly, dividing in two. If a cell doubles every half hour, then it can produce 281474976710656 descendants per day. And some bacteria can multiply even faster.

Slide #14

The rapid multiplication of lactic acid bacteria in milk leads to the fact that it turns sour in a matter of hours.

Slide #15

Slide #16

Spore formation

Under unfavorable conditions, for example, with a lack of water, many bacteria go into a dormant state. The cell loses water, shrinks somewhat, and remains dormant until water reappears. Some species survive periods of drought, heat, or cold in the form of spores. The formation of spores in bacteria is not a way of reproduction, since each cell produces only one spore and the total number of individuals does not increase.

Slide #17

When a spore is formed, the cell shrinks, rounds off within the existing cell wall and releases a new thick wall inside the old one. Under favorable conditions (in humid conditions), the spore germinates. The spores are very resistant: they withstand prolonged drying, boiling for several hours, dry heating up to 140oC. Some spores can withstand temperatures as low as -245oC. They are also resistant to the action of toxic substances, remain viable for a long time. So, anthrax sticks remain viable, remaining in the form of spores for 30 years.

Slide #18

Survival of bacteria on drying

Vibrio cholerae up to 2 days
Plague wand up to 8 days
Diphtheria stick up to 30 days
Typhoid stick up to 70 days
Tuberculosis bacillus up to 90 days
Staphylococcus aureus up to 90 days

Slide #19

The positive value of bacteria

It is determined by their participation in many biological processes, especially in the circulation of substances in nature. Bacteria, as a result of their vital activity, are able to decompose complex organic compounds into simple inorganic substances, which are again used by green plants. Bacteria are able to decompose proteins, carbohydrates, fats.

Slide #20

A number of substances formed by bacteria as a result of metabolism are very valuable for humans. The activity of bacteria is used in various branches of industry and agriculture for the production of lactic acid products, for sauerkraut, forage ensiling, for the production of organic acids, alcohols, acetone, enzymatic preparations, etc.

Slide #21

At present, bacteria are becoming extremely important as producers of many biologically active substances (antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins, etc.) used in medicine, veterinary medicine, and animal husbandry. Without the participation of bacteria, the processes that occur during the preparation of leather for tanning, maceration of flax and hemp fibers are impossible.

Slide #22

Humans also use bacteria to treat wastewater: when the wastewater is slowly passed over gravel and sand, solid particles settle and, under the action of various bacteria, turn into a material that, after drying, is used as fertilizer. When passing through sand and gravel, disease-causing bacteria die and are digested by putrefactive bacteria.

Of the plant diseases caused by bacteria, the following are known: a burn that affects fruit plants - apple trees, pears, etc .; black rot of cabbage; soft rot of many plants; tumors of plant roots Despite the harm brought (bacterial root cancer); tumor-like growths on leaves (galls), etc.

summary of presentations

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slide 1

Bacteria - friends or enemies of man?
Prepared by: 4th grade student Milena Mirzoyan

slide 2

Plants and animals are made up of tiny cells. Some of the cells can live independently, one by one. Are there organisms smaller than cells? It turns out yes! This is bacteria. Scientists suggest that bacteria were the first living things to appear on Earth. The kingdom of bacteria is comparable to the kingdoms of animals and plants. Bacteria are much smaller than cells. Most of them are less than one thousandth of a millimeter in size. It is no coincidence that bacteria are sometimes called microbes (from the Greek mikros - small and bios - life). But everyone says that microbes are very harmful to humans. I decided to study this problem and find out whether all bacteria are really harmful to humans, and whether there are bacteria that benefit people. The purpose of the study: to study the influence of bacteria on the human body and their role in nature. Hypothesis: There are both harmful and beneficial bacteria for humans.

slide 3

slide 4

There are many types of bacteria. They have a variety of shapes. For example, spherical bacteria are called cocci.

slide 5

Bacteria reproduce simply by dividing in half. It only takes a few minutes! In a day, from one bacterium that has fallen into suitable conditions, tens of billions of exactly the same bacteria can form. The accumulation of bacteria that arose due to the division of one original bacterium is called a colony. Such colonies are clearly visible to the naked eye. They look like colored dots. Surely you have seen similar spots on a piece of stale sausage or cheese. Food spoils due to the work of bacteria!

slide 6

Bacteria need energy to live. Many of them get it by destroying nutrients created by other organisms. Some bacteria are able to multiply in the human body. They can be very dangerous, causing diseases: plague, tuberculosis, dysentery, cholera, gangrene and many others. Festering pimples, inflamed wounds are the consequences of the body's struggle with bacteria that have penetrated inside.

Slide 7

Anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) is the causative agent of a dangerous disease - anthrax. This acute infectious disease often leads to the death of the patient.

Slide 8

Some spirilla (bacteria in the form of spirally twisted rods) are pathogens of animal and human diseases.

Slide 9

So bacteria are the enemy? Not certainly in that way. Many of them live off the nutrients of dead organisms. Such bacteria are called saprophytes (from the Greek sapros - rotten). Saprophyte bacteria destroy fallen leaves and wilted grasses. As a result, plant residues turn into humus, that is, into a fertile part of the soil. Soil would not have appeared on our planet if saprophyte bacteria had not destroyed plant and animal remains!

Slide 10

Saprophytic bacteria are involved in pickling cucumbers, mushrooms, and sauerkraut.

slide 11

And there are bacteria that live in the human body and are his assistants. We are talking about beneficial E. coli - bacteria that live in the intestines. They help digest food. Organisms of different species that help each other are called symbionts (from the Greek sym, syn - together and bios - life). We can say that E. coli is a human symbiont. Every healthy person has billions of such E. coli!

slide 12

Nowadays, it is clear to everyone what a huge role vitamins play. Without them, the life of people and animals is impossible. Another thing is also known: a person receives vitamins from food. However, few people are probably aware that some vitamins are created in the body. The B vitamins and vitamin K, which are very important for us, are formed in the intestines with the help of Escherichia coli.

biology lesson 5th grade teacher Tsarapina A.N.


REMEMBER! 1. In which organisms does the body not consist of several cells? 2. What kingdoms of organisms divide the living world?




GOALS: 1. To study the features of the structure and vital activity of bacteria. 2. Show the role of bacteria in nature and human life




bacteria - These are primitive unicellular organisms, in the cytoplasm of which there is no formed nucleus. The nuclear substance is distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Bacteriology The branch of microbiology that deals with the study of bacteria.





? 1. What process underlies the increase in the number of bacteria? 2. How do you think bacteria can reproduce?



Bacteria nutrition create themselves, and also feed on ready-made nutrients.





4. Soil bacteria 5. Bacteria of decomposition and decay

1. Participate in the formation of soil structure and fertility 2. Formation of minerals 3. Maintain reserves of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere


1. lactic acid bacteria



harmful bacteria to humans pathogenic bacteria












A1. Bacteria are organisms: 1. only unicellular; 2. only multicellular; 3. both unicellular and multicellular A2. A bacterial cell contains: 1. shell, cytoplasm, nucleus; 2. cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleic acid; 3. shell, cytoplasm, nucleic acid


A3. Bacteria: 1. feed on ready-made nutrients; 2. they themselves are able to create nutrients; 3. 1 and 2 are correct.


A4. Determine the correct sentence. 1. Bacteria belong to the animal kingdom 2. Bacteria belong to the fungi kingdom 3. Statements 1 and 2 are not true


A5. Determine the correct sentence. 1. All bacteria harm other living organisms. 2. all bacteria benefit only humans. 3 Man Uses Bacteria To Create Certain Foods


Homework 1. § 11 p. 44 of textbook 2. optional write reports on human bacterial diseases and their prevention




History of the study of bacteria

  • Bacteria were first seen through a microscope and described by the Dutch naturalist Anthony van Leeuwenhoek in 1676.

Leeuwenhoek's drawings


Shapes of bacteria

Bacteria, depending on the shape of the cells, are divided into several groups: spherical - cocci, rod-shaped - bacilli or rods, spiral - spirochetes


blue green algae

Blue-green algae are also bacteria. They are capable of photosynthesis, like plants, and do not need organic matter for nutrition.


Importance of bacteria

Importance of bacteria


  • Bacteria are found in soil, in the air, in lakes and oceans.
  • They live in the cold, in the ice of the Arctic.
  • In hot sands of the desert, and in hot acid springs.
  • Some bacteria tolerate very high salinity with temperatures above 90 degrees, they were found in the Dead Sea (Israel).

  • In the atmosphere, they are found in water droplets, and there are many of them where the air is dusty.
  • In cities, rainwater contains more bacteria than in the countryside.
  • There are few of them in the cold air, but they are there.

  • Bacteria play an important role both in nature and in human life. Some of them are harmful to organisms (plants, animals, humans) because they cause diseases. But the ability of bacteria to actively process organic matter makes them indispensable.


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